why was warkworth castle built

Eleanor became Duchess of Aquitaine after the death of her father, serving as its ruler. The first written record of Warkworth Castle, however, occurs in a charter of between 1157 and 1164, in which Henry II granted the castle and manor of Warkworth to Roger fitz Eustace. Helped so much with my history homework – a leaflet. This is such a good website it helped me so much thanks. Newminster was also granted a saltpan at Warkworth although the site is unknown. The large windows betray its residential function rather than any serious consideration of defensive requirements. I also have a particular soft spot for it because it was the subject of my GCSE coursework back in (ahem!) Although there are parallels at other places in Northumberland for settlements dominating both the coast and guarding the entrance to the Coquet this idea has still to be proved. Other villages and hamlets stood at Low Buston and Brotherwick. Apparently, he sported whiskers which earned him the nickname ‘Al Gernons’, a name later Percys adopted. thx sooooo much i could not have done my history homework without!! Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. The castle remained in Crown ownership until 1416 when Henry V restored the family estates and the title of Earl of Northumberland to Hotspur's son, Henry Percy. This allows the steep scarping of the river bank to be viewed and gives a good appreciation as to why town walls were not required. Although this is not improbable, no trace has yet been found. However, a key requirement of the peace treaty was that the major border fortresses at Bamburgh and Newcastle remained in English hands. Warkworth lies on the coast in mid-Northumberland with the River Coquet running west-east through the parish. really good, trip to it tommorow. Without this site I don’t know how I would have finished my homework!! Initially constructed in timber, it was rebuilt in stone in the early thirteenth century. Mesolithic hunter-gatherers could have hunted winter wildfowl and other migrating species. Edward III granted the castle to the powerful Percy family in 1328 and they converted it into a lavish palace. Allen, R (1976). He held them until his death at the hands of Yorkist forces at the First Battle of St Albans (1455). Warkworth Castle, near the Northumberland coast, was home to one of the most powerful noble families in the North of England. Castles of Northumbria. Learn how your comment data is processed. English Heritage, London. What kind of job can you get with a MA in business management or adminisstration? He remained loyal until 1485 when, whilst commanding the rearguard of the Yorkist army at the Battle of Bosworth Field, he refused to commit his forces leaving Richard III to be slain and replaced by Henry Tudor. The English Castle 1066-1650. William was a staunch ally to William the Conqueror and left his hometown of Perci in Normandy to move to England just after the Battle of Hastings. In the post-medieval period the landscape changed in a number of ways. Find out what it’s all about here, and then come back to this page for today’s item – Warkworth Castle. The castle was besieged during the Wars of the Roses and was garrisoned during the seventeenth century civil war. This helped me with my castle project in school! This provided a degree of stability for the local populace although this did not stop the castle being briefly besieged in 1327 and the town sacked in 1341. Jackson, M.J (1992). The gatehouse was constructed by Robert Fitz Roger in the early thirteenth century. He probably also establishes the hermitage. However, the earliest surviving record of a settlement at Warkworth dates from AD 737 when Ceolwulf, King of Northumbria granted it to Lindisfarne Priory. The earliest remains are prehistoric with two possible Mesolithic finds: a small stone hammerhead from near Hartlaw and an axe from South Side. It looks cool like a ‘real’ castle. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. How long will the footprints on the moon last? At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, the Sturton Grange area was divided between a number of landowners. There was no flanking curtain wall, the terrain along the river making it unnecessary. More modern defences may seem puny against the might of Warkworth Castle but a small pillbox near Gloster Hill played its part in the defence of Britain in World War II (1939-45). Alternatively, the castle may have been raised by Henry II of England after he took back control of Northumberland in 1157. The first castle was thought to be built during the Norman Conquest by Henry II to secure his Northumberland lands. He was the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, son of Queen Matilda, father of King John and Richard the Lionheart, and husband of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was a fascinating person in her own right. Thanks so so much this helped me a lot i really appreciate it thanks. English Historical Documents Vol 3 (1189-1327). Thereafter stone was robbed from the ruins to support buildings elsewhere and the castle was never rebuilt. Not long after one was made Earl of Northumberland by Richard II (1377), he swapped sides in favour of the king’s cousin, the future Henry IV. To the north the medieval town bridge and gatehouse survive. Henry II granted Warkworth to Roger fitz Eustace between 1157 and 1164. In fact, when Queen Elizabeth I visited, a separate building had to built for her to stay in. Castles from the Air: An Aerial Portrait of Britain’s Finest Castles. (c) Copyright 2019 CastlesFortsBattles.co.uk, English Historical Documents Vol 3 (1189-1327), English Historical Documents Vol 4 (1327-1485), Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, Vol. This footprint was retained when the castle was rebuilt by Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland in the 1380s. By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. Glad we were able to help you out, Cerys. Thanks for using Primary Facts, Paris. Warkworth Castle. This was also a period of new ideas in farming practice and, as these developments spread, many fine farmhouses and farm buildings were built to incorporate them, including Maudlin, New Barns, Northfield, Southside and Sturton Grange. All eventually fell and the Percys were deprived of their property once more. They include Samian pottery from a Warkworth garden, a small statuette, some coins and an altar from Gloster Hill. Alnwick Castle was their ancestral seat, but they chose to live at Warkworth until the 17th century. He neglected the structure and by 1608 lead and other building materials were being stripped from the castle. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. I love this place…. He made few modifications but around 1380 his descendant - Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland - made Warkworth his main residence. It remained ruinous until 1199 when the then owner, Robert Fitz Roger, commenced a wholesale rebuilding. However, by the 13th century they had been replaced by more practical, long-lasting structures. The earliest remains are prehistoric with two possible Mesolithic finds: a small stone hammerhead from near Hartlaw and an axe from South Side. So far no settlements have been found of this period. i loved this it helped very much with my research thank you xxx, the reason i read this is because it’s what we learn about in school, Your email address will not be published. Your email address will not be published. This really helped me with my history homework! The evidence for this relies heavily upon the fragments of a cross found in the Coquet, historical and artefactual evidence for a church and the tradition of a palace for the Northumbrian king at a site now overlain by the castle. Good work, had a project and now its finished thanks to the website! Constructed within a loop of the river, both the water and the steep banks provided strong natural defences. The river, along with the steep scarps along its length, negated any requirement for a town wall. How many songs did mason musso write himself? The English Heritage website tells us that the castle was laid out in around 1200, although there was probably a settlement there before the Norman Conquest. They were restored to the Earl the following year but in 1405 he supported an uprising led by Richard Scrope, Archbishop of York. The castle is not mentioned in the account of the action suggesting it was in a poor state of repair by this time. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Henry also faced problems with his three sons, partly as they argued over who had the most property. There was also a deer park, whose boundary bank survives in places as an earthwork, but other sites connected to the castle, such as a foundry and salmon fishery, are only known from historical documents. Durham County Council and Northumberland County Council can accept no responsibility for any inaccuracy contained therein. When the Wars of Scottish Independence broke out in the late thirteenth century, the then owner of Warkworth Castle was Robert de Clavering. Those within the bailey would act as lookouts to protect the family in the castle and the wider community in case of invasion. London. Concurrently England was in the midst of a civil war, the Anarchy, as rival claimants Stephen and Matilda vied for the throne. The motte and bailey design was used widely throughout Ireland, Britain and Europe, and was particularly favoured by the Normans, who found them ideal defensive structures during the time of the Conquest. Warkworth lies on the coast in mid-Northumberland with the River Coquet running west-east through the parish. Folly Publications. The gatehouse was probably built in the late fourteenth century concurrently with the conversion of the castle into a palatial residence by Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. First time on the blog or new to the Time Pieces History Project? Ha ha! The bailey would be home to more servants, the stables and all manner of other buildings, including a chapel, warehouses and barracks. They were cheap and quick to put up, so they could be constructed while marching across the country, and could be manned by a member of the nobility who had taken William’s side. Emery, A (1996). Later, it was converted into a less defensive house. His great-granddaughter Agnes married the half-brother of the second wife of Henry I (!) The Great Keep at Warkwork was built over the remains of an earlier motte in the late fourteenth century. Graham, F (1976). These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Why were Castles built? Outside the medieval town there were rural settlements, including Sturton Grange which belonged to the Cistercian Newminster Abbey in Morpeth. Warkworth Castle was built in the mid-twelfth century either by Prince Henry of Scotland or by English forces after Henry II seized back control of Northumberland. Amidst this chaos, David I of Scotland saw an opportunity and invaded northern England. Amazingly amazing! They were Earls of Northumberland, powerful, often in favour with the king or queen, and owned much of the land in the area. Please note that this information has been compiled from a number of different sources. Yale University Press. English Castles, A guide by counties. So, Henry II had a lot to live up to, and as the founder of the Plantagenet dynasty, he did quite well. He was defeated at the Battle of Shrewsbury (1403) and the Percy estates taken into Crown control. However, to date they have not been located and may never have been built. Warkworth Castle is famous for being a fine example of a motte and bailey, but what does that mean, and what are the benefits of building a fortress in that way? and her descendants took the name Percy. In the 14th century, a gatehouse was added and several towers were constructed. All Rights Reserved. Amazing my history homework was so hard and I couldn’t do it without this website!!! The Percys are an ancient family, and are believed to be the descendants of Manfred, a Danish chieftain who supported Rolf the Ganger (also Gaange Rolf or Rollo – “The Walker”) to conquer Normandy in 912.

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