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supernatural beliefs in different cultures

Yet, across all psychological domains, self-other agreement has been estimated without establishing measurement invariance across these two sources of data. Such measures are often used uncritically by researchers who treat them as unidimensional measures of general religiosity [16]. Experiments examined whether donations to religious and secular organisations were more motivated by 1) reputational concerns in a ‘public’ condition or 2) fear of supernatural punishment in a ‘private’ condition. All rights reserved. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Previous dyadic (family) research, has seen precursors of measurement invariance tests for partners in couple relationships or twins–who each reported on themselves (e.g., [52]; see [24] for current practices). Citation: Bluemke M, Jong J, Grevenstein D, Mikloušić I, Halberstadt J (2016) Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports. Once (partial) measurement invariance is met, other aspects of full or structural invariance can be tested across group, such as equal factor means or factor variances and covariances. Simultaneously fixing the factor variances of both groups to 1 and constraining the covariances to be equal across groups (MI5) did not worsen model fit, so the equivalence of relationships between the item-pairs across the dyads held (cf. Religion itself is a multi-faceted phenomenon. The chosen peers were meant to be people who knew the target participant very well, alleviating the aforementioned problems of access to information. There are also motivational accounts of religious belief, such that some basic, pancultural fears—of randomness [6] or death [7]—explain our attraction toward religion. Rituals and ceremonies are practiced to show dedication and faith to a religion. Consequently, we subjected dependent groups to CFA (DGCFA), accounting for correlated datasets. Given the limitations of any individual fit index, we tested the goodness-of-fit of plausible models using multiple criteria. No, Is the Subject Area "Psychometrics" applicable to this article? Religions have their own rituals attached to their beliefs. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164291.g002. Peer-ratings are typically taken to provide such an independent source of evidence for an instrument’s convergent validity, whereas other self-report measures typically yield proxies for convergent validity conflated by same-source errors. So why are ghosts such an integral part of our culture? Yet comparing factor means (or scale means) always requires scalar (or uniqueness) invariance. Consequently, the convergence of self- and peer-reports may partly reflect similarity-based agreement among well-acquainted people [123]. Belief in the supernatural, especially gods, is one of the most obvious characteristics of religion. To establish the appropriate model for configural invariance, we first checked whether modeling the covariance between corresponding item residuals across self- and peer-data was necessary at all. Reliability estimates will be provided on the basis of SEM (see S2 File), once a measurement model has been accepted. The ten-item SBS was translated from English into Croatian by three researchers (graduate and PhD level) at a public university. Given measurement invariance, the underlying latent variables related to the observed item answers in like manner for Croatian self- and peer-raters, as well as for Croatians and New Zealanders. Table 3). The crucial steps in determining whether SBS scores are comparable across groups were the step-by-step MI-tests as described above (cf. By Henry Gamber. If possible, only a few plausible parameters should be set free, other parameters should not shift tremendously, and the evidence for significance should be stronger than just at p = .05 at the minimal critical test-value of Δχ2 (df = 1) > 3.84 [36]. The only models to achieve sufficient model fit, supported by AIC, were essentially unidimensional models with an orthogonal method factor for negative item content and five facets for the related item-pairs (M4/M5, Figs 1 and 2). $���TfOEDŽ4�4�/�h��A��8r�Znט���D+9���G�\ For the supernatural belief factor by itself, AVE = .66. The abandonment of supernatural religious beliefs and rituals seems to occur quite easily in some contexts, but post-supernaturalist cultures require a specific set of conditions that are difficult to produce and sustain on a large scale and thus are historically rare. As Chen writes, “Otherwise, it is not certain whether group differences on factor means are attributable to valid cultural differences or to measurement artifacts” [28] (p.1006). Recommended reliability cutoffs depend on the purpose and use of a scale. They are used to help express ideas and concepts as well as help the followers achieve spirituality. There are no upcoming events in this series. If you sing at the dining table in the evening in Netherlands, it is considered to be bad luck. This strategy comes at the expense of losing crucial information on specific content. G��#�ҟ;hr��i���l�w�L"Kd�`@�6Dzxt����K[��^rZ�m"{��k �c�`�'��2Oyq7���޸�35]�/}C���r�w�:l�b��KĸP�/A��v�Zw�v�h���b�� כ�Hr�6TX? If there were several items that differed strongly in their loadings across groups, this might indicate a different understanding of the construct in both groups; small deviations, however, may hardly affect any of the substantial conclusions. The benefit of using the SBS over religious self-categorization, or religious denomination, is evident from comparing the correlations computed separately for Christians and Atheists/Agnostics. The SBS was also shown to be useful for testing hypotheses about the relationship between death anxiety and religious belief [22]. “They have a syndrome that is referred to as ghost sickness,” Bennett said. Table 5). Given the similar size and opposite directions of the threshold shifts, they tend to cancel each other out at the scale level. When introducing MI restrictions at each further step, model fit in terms of CFI and RMSEA hardly deteriorated. Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai (the gathering of one hundred supernatural tales) and kaidan ("Strange or mysterious" + "talk") Supernatural beliefs are prevalent in many societies, but their adaptive functions are debated. No, Is the Subject Area "Language" applicable to this article? shows and books, and if you’re lucky, you may very well have your own story about them. Theism can occur outside of religion, and some religions are atheistic. The final constraint of equal latent means (MI6) made almost no difference with regard to model fit. Lower AIC values indicate a more accurate model, and similarly so for BIC, though BIC reflects the true data generating process better, as it penalizes overly complex (less parsimonious) models more strictly than AIC. Jong and colleagues [11] provided the first evidence that the SBS was an essentially unidimensional measure that was useful for testing hypotheses about the psychological causes of supernatural belief (see also [22]). More than that, you won’t find any 4th floor in the elevator in most buildings in China at all. Note that the two noninvariant intercepts, which were specified post hoc in exploratory fashion, represent reliable findings, as they replicated in the second Croatian data set (to which we turn next when evaluating peer-responses).

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