The countries became known as Great Britain. In this 0–8 months range, the child is engaged in vocal play of vegetative sounds, laughing, and cooing. After several months of speech that is restricted to short utterances, children enter the "telegraphic stage" and begin to produce longer and more complex grammatical structures (O'Grady & Cho, 2011, p. 347). In Kroll & Vaan (eds) (1981), 55–81. For example, children might say 'tap' instead of "stop" and completely drop the 's' sound in that word. As a result of the individual being aware of the audience, context and reason they are communicating, both written and spoken language are able to overlap and take several forms at this stage..  However, since he developed the minimalist program, his latest version of theory of syntactic structure, Chomsky has reduced the elements of universal grammar, which he believes are prewired in humans to just the principle of recursion, thus voiding most of the nativist endeavor. The development of alternative plans may arise if the parent does not acknowledge what the infant wants, the infant may entertain itself to satisfy the previous desire.  In particular, he has proposed that humans are biologically prewired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way, arguing that children are born with a language acquisition device (LAD). Before birth. 270-278). Studies on patients with unilateral lesions have provided evidence that females are in fact more bilateralized with their verbal abilities. Yis, I speke Englyssh. It is also suggested that the gender gap in language impairment prevalence could also be explained by the clinical over diagnosis of males. One component of the young child's linguistic environment is child-directed speech (also known as baby talk or motherese), which is language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences. Infants start without knowing a language, yet by 10 months, babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling.Some research has shown that the earliest learning begins in utero when the fetus starts to recognize the sounds and speech patterns of its mother's voice and differentiate them from other sounds after birth. pp. . These simple sentences follow syntactic rules and are refined gradually as development continues. For example: 'cat' may only refer to the family cat and no other cat, or 'dog' may refer to certain kinds of dogs that the child is exposed to. , More recent research has also explored writing development. , By 36–60 months, phonological awareness continues to improve as well as pronunciation.  This could explain why some of the language impairments in young males seems to spontaneously improve over time. Babies have an innate preference to listen to their mother's voice. These errors result from overgeneralization of rules. Contextual clues are a major factor in the child's vocabulary development. 82–84, 108–109, 136–137, 160, 183. , There is some research that demonstrates that bilingualism may often be misdiagnosed as a language impairment. It attempted to fix and refine the language further.  New York, NY: Human Sciences Press.  Mothers in the United States use more questions, are more information-oriented, and use more grammatically correct utterances with their 3-month-olds. “Where is Daddy?” (embedding)  In the research that has been conducted, focus has generally centred on the development of written and spoken language and their connection. By the 14. It seems that when a female has experienced a lesion to the left hemisphere, she is better able to compensate for this damage than a male can. , Syntactic development involves the ways that various morphemes are ordered or combined in sentences. England passed into French hands under William the Conqueror. Here, it is believed that children begin to understand that writing serves a purpose. These differences in interaction techniques reflect differences in "each society's assumptions about infants and adult-to-adult cultural styles of talking. . The females in this age range showed more spontaneous speech production than the males and this finding was not due to mothers speaking more with daughters than sons.  When a child undergoes initial learning of the written language, they have not yet fully mastered the oral language.  When a child learns to write they need to master letter formation, spelling, punctuation and they also have to gain an understanding of the structure and the organisational patterns involved in written language..
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