Inasmuch as our assessment that commitment fears are a key determinant of Erbil's negotiating position is correct, the reduction of those concerns associated with the creation of new pipelines (in a context in which the KRG maintains its hold on the region's hydrocarbon sector) could lead Erbil to be less intransigent in negotiations with the federal government. email@example.com Interview with Minister Falah Mustafa Bakir, October 24, 2012; interview with Qubad Talabani, December 2, 2012; interview with KRG natural-resources ministry official, December 2012. Αγία Βαρβάρα Αττικής We expect that Ankara's decision to allow the creation of new pipelines will assuage Erbil's deep-seated fears of exploitation by Baghdad, which should eliminate a powerful motive for Kurdish secessionist aspirations and thus reduce the corresponding risk of war. This would be particularly useful for Maliki to deflect likely accusations from his political rivals of having given in to the Kurds under duress. Some of the sources of information BBB relies on are temporarily unavailable. Baghdad has also signaled to Ankara its displeasure at the deepening of relations between Turkey and the KRG through a variety of political and diplomatic channels and has lobbied the United States to persuade the Turkish government not to allow energy exports without federal-government approval.47. Ankara's pipeline decision would offer the prospect of unlocking international markets for the Kurdistan region's resource wealth, with a strong potential of contributing to Iraq's and Turkey's socioeconomic development (and probably to the wellbeing of energy-importing European countries). Νέες εγγυημένες τιμές οικιακών Φωτοβολταϊκών 15 Patrick Osgood and Kamaran Al-Najar, "Kurdistan Exports Nearly Zero as Payment Hopes Thin," Iraq Oil Report, December 20, 2012. Similarly, Abdullah al-Amir, a personal advisor to Hussein al-Shahristani, Iraq's deputy prime minister for energy affairs, argued: "If you have one part of the country producing and exporting and selling the oil, then Basra, the southern part, will do the same, and the other governorates will do the same, and this will have no government planning"; Roxana Saberi, "No End in Sight for Iraq Oil Dispute,"Al-Monitor, February 27, 2013. To meet this goal, we always seek to gather first-hand information on the ground, verify facts from multiple angles, and solicit input from every stakeholder involved in a given story. This in turn should make the Kurds more comfortable with the idea of remaining part of Iraq. As a matter of policy, BBB does not endorse any product, service or business. 3 (1995): 379-414. This makes them essentially captive sources of supply in the event of disruptions elsewhere, and it puts Turkey in a good position to extract a favorable gas price and reduce prices charged by other suppliers.35 Moreover, access to Kurdish resources serves Ankara's goal of becoming a major energy hub, connecting the Middle East, Russia and the Caucasus to Europe and reaping both geopolitical advantages and economic benefits in the form of transit fees.36 Finally, the geopolitical value of closer relations with the KRG has significantly increased for Ankara with the deterioration of its relationship with Baghdad in the past few years. “Using debt to fuel growth is a typical… Keep reading →, Iraq’s Oil Ministry is taking legal action against The Republic of Turkey and state-owned pipeline operator BOTAŞ, further ratcheting up tensions between Baghdad and the Kurdish Regional Government over oil exports. [ citation needed ] The stability of the Kurdistan region has allowed it to achieve a … FAX : 22230-22605 As Aydin Selcen, Turkish consul-general in Erbil, put it: "Our prime minister's vision is full economic integration. On the other hand, increasing KRG economic and political reliance on Turkey is likely to strengthen Ankara's leverage in the relationship, thus ensuring that Erbil will stick to positions on the PKK and the Kurdish issue that are to Ankara's liking. Our analysis relies on information we have collected through interviews with KRG policy makers, Turkish officials, third-country diplomats and analysts as well as from newspaper articles and analytical pieces on Iraq and Turkey. As its residual hopes of undermining the KRG's initiatives with the current policy vanish, it is unlikely that Baghdad would want to stick to an increasingly costly failed strategy. The corresponding significant economic benefits for both Iraq and Turkey (and probably energy-importing European countries) would be coupled with a net reduction in the probability of war between Baghdad and Erbil, in spite of the increased risk of preventive war by Baghdad in the short run. HKN has operated the … 10 Interview with Minister Falah Mustafa Bakir, October 24, 2012; interview with Qubad Talabani, KRG Presidency of the Council of Ministers, head of Department of Coordination and Follow Up, Erbil, December 2, 2012; interview with KRG natural resources ministry official, Erbil, December 2012; Christopher M. Blanchard, "Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue-sharing, and U.S. Policy," CRS Report for Congress, March 3, 2010. ERBIL/SULAIMANIYA - Iraq's semi-autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) is moving forward with plans to privatize electricity distribution and tariff collection to reduce power losses and streamline billing, multiple KRG energy officials said. 8 International Crisis Group, "Deja Vu All Over Again? 42 To be sure, some aspects of the dispute between Baghdad and Erbil can be thought of as bargaining over the share of federal revenues allocated to the KRG. In sum, the Turkey-KRG energy partnership offers the prospect of unlocking international markets for the Kurdistan region's resource wealth. However, a government attack is highly unlikely; Baghdad's forces are stretched thin fighting a reinvigorated Sunni Arab insurgency and would thus be reluctant to open a second front. (YUNUS KELES/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images), Export increase gives Iraq more oil revenues despite price drop, PKK suspected of Iraq-Turkey Pipeline attack, Iraq outlines financial crisis response plan, Oil Ministry orders 250,000 bpd October production hike, KRG plans to privatize power distribution, bill collection, Kirkuk power supply awaits repair of Ajeel pipeline, Iraq’s September production drops 200,000 bpd toward OPEC+ compliance, Q&A: Hossam Hussein Wali, director general of the South Refineries Company. In a landscape that is often polarized and politicized, we are able to gather and corroborate information from an unusually wide array of sources because we can speak with all of them in good faith. On the other hand, the Turkey-KRG energy partnership would enhance Erbil's sway in Iraqi politics, which could generate incentives for Baghdad to use force to forestall this development. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139081/f-stephen-larrabee/why-er…. These have been the focus of intense disputes between Baghdad and Erbil in recent years. Robert Art and Patrick Cronin [The United States Institute of Peace, 2003], 73; Grigoryan, "Third-Party Intervention and the Escalation of State-Minority Conflicts.". The next day, Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards… Keep reading →, By providing a clear and consistent roadmap for American interests in Iraq and future international support, Washington can help Baghdad steer the country in the right direction after next month’s elections. 24 Interview with Adel Murad, Secretary of the PUK Central Council, Sulaimani, November 15, 2012. 7 Interview with Minister Falah Mustafa Bakir, head of the KRG Department of Foreign Relations, Erbil, October 24, 2012; speech by KRG Prime Minister Nechirvan Barzani, CWC Kurdistan-Iraq Oil and Gas Conference, Erbil, December 4, 2012. 1 (2001). In any case, responsible policy making requires comparing the short-term increase in the risk of war with the corresponding long-term benefits, which we argue are greater. This crucially depended on attracting international investments to the region. BBB information and Business Profiles reflect the most current information available to us. However, this is not necessarily the case. In standard zero-sum bargaining games on the distribution of a surplus, the "pie" to be shared is a continuous variable. Moreover, there is evidence that Baghdad worries about some sort of "demonstration effect" associated with concessions on control of the Kurdish region's natural resources industry: other subfederal entities may feel emboldened to advance similar requests, thus weakening the central government and, in the worst case scenario, paving the road to the country's disintegration.45. ΑΠΕΗΛ/Α/Φ1/οικ.24461(ΦΕΚ Β' 3583/31122014) το... Η εταιρεία μας παρέδωσε ακόμη 2 εγκατεστημένα οικιακά Φ/Β συστήματα ! Qubad Talabani, the representative of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) of Iraq to the United States, gave that assessment Thursday during a public presentation at the University of Central Florida. BBB remains operational and focused on serving our business community. The KRG will release 500,000 or 550,000 barrels of oil per day (reports conflict on this here and here) to Iraq’s State Oil… Keep reading →, Financial results from 127 global oil and natural gas companies showed increased use of debt to help fund operations – along with asset sales – in recent years amid flat oil prices. Both factors are likely to increase Erbil's bargaining power, and correspondingly decrease Baghdad's, on a range of domestic issues. Final deals with the region's power producers are yet to be agreed upon, said Diar Baban, Director of Electricity Production at the KRG Ministry of Electricity. 36 Mills, "Northern Iraq's Oil Chessboard," 58. 52 See, for example, Ernesto Londoño, "Syrian Conflict's Impact Is Felt across Border in Iraq," Washington Post, March 27, 2013; Jane Arraf, "A Wary Iraq Weighs Its Options As Syrian Civil War Deepens," Christian Science Monitor, December 6, 2012; Tim Arango, "Rising Violence in Iraq Spurs Fears of New Sectarian War," New York Times, April 24, 2013; and Jessica D. Lewis, "AQI's 'Soldier Harvest' Campaign," Institute for the Study of War Backgrounder, October 9, 2013. Even if an escalation of Kurdish demands does occur, we should not expect this to translate automatically into an increased risk of armed conflict between Baghdad and Erbil, but rather in a bargaining outcome more favorable to Erbil, as both are aware of the KRG's stronger position.49 Moreover, Kurdish politicians have been explicit about their preference for overcoming the hydrocarbon deadlock with an agreement with Baghdad and in the framework of the existing 17-83 percent revenue-sharing formula, rather than by achieving de facto financial independence or even de jure independence. Η εγκατάσταση φωτοβολταϊκών συστημάτων θεωρείται... ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΚΟΙ ΧΑΡΤΕΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗΣ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΣΜΟΥ ΜΕΣΩ ΤΗΣ ΦΩΤΟΒΟΛΤΑΪΚΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ 1 (2006). BBB asks third parties who publish complaints, reviews and/or responses on this website to affirm that the information provided is accurate.
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