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geology of ontario

Parker E. Calkin and Carlton E. Brett, "Ancestral Niagara River drainage: Stratigraphic and paleontologic setting", "Geology of the Canadian Shield in Ontario: An Update", "Geology | Porcupine Prospectors and Developers Association", "Geochemistry, Petrogenesis, and Metallogenisis of Komatiites in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada", "Middle Proterozoic and The Mid-continent Rift", "Ring of Fire News: Removing our support, government is not listening", "Geological Past of Niagara Falls and the Niagara Region", "Ontario's mineral development strategy 2015", "Ontario's Natural Resources – Minerals and Mining". The northwestern parts of the Shield, located roughly north and west of Sudbury, are known as the Superior province is the largest of the three sections, covering about 70% of the Shield portion in Ontario. Colloquium Series Speakers. [2], The Superior Craton or Superior Province is an Archean craton. [18] The Horseshoe Falls, which are about 2,600 feet (790 m) wide, have also changed their shape through the process of erosion; evolving from a small arch to a horseshoe bend, to the present day gigantic V. [19] Just upstream from the falls' current location, Goat Island splits the course of the Niagara River, resulting in the separation of the mostly Canadian Horseshoe Falls to the west from the American and Bridal Veil Falls to the east. The following 31 pages are in this category, out of 31 total. After the period of mountain building, there was a long period of erosion, during which the land was worn down to almost a plain. These rocks correlate with the least deformed rocks north of the Grenville Front in the Superior Province and show signs of east-west lateral extension. The features that became Niagara Falls were created by the Wisconsin glaciation about 10,000 years ago. The Circum-Superior Belt is a widespread Paleoproterozoic large igneous province in the Canadian Shield of Northern, Western and Eastern Canada. The largest dike swarm known on Earth is the Mackenzie dike swarm in Ontario which is 500 km (310 mi) wide and 3,000 km (1,900 mi) long. World-class mineral deposits can be found here and are mined extensively. With a deep, common, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada, the Shield stretches north from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, covering over half of Canada and most of Greenland; it also extends south into the northern reaches of the United States. The country spans the Congo Craton: a stable section of ancient continental crust, deformed and influenced by several different mountain building orogeny events, sedimentation, volcanism and the geologically recent effects of the East Africa Rift System in the east. [13], Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian rocks and fossils can be found in the basins in the south and north of the province. Meteorite impacts have altered the natural geological formation processes. Geology of Ontario Last updated June 25, 2019 Location of the Grenville and Superior Craton . The geology of Ontario consists of the study of the rock formations in the most populated province of Canada. It is Canada's second largest province in total land area. [1] The Canadian Shield spans much of northern Ontario and is subdivided into three main geological provinces; The Superior, Southern and Grenville. About 61% of the province is covered by the Canadian Shield. Dike swarms may extend over 400 km (250 mi) in width and length. [14], The Hudson Bay Lowlands are a vast wetland located between the Canadian Shield and southern shores of Hudson Bay and James Bay. BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF ONTARIO NORTHERN SHEET Scale 1:1 000 000 Index to Geology of Ontario Maps ©Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1991. The country's complicated tectonic past have yielded large deposits of gold, diamonds, coltan and other valuable minerals. According to the timeline of the far future, in roughly 50,000 years Niagara Falls will have eroded the remaining 32 kilometres (20 mi) to Lake Erie and ceased to exist. Its physical features vary greatly from the Mixedwood Plains in the southeast to the boreal forests and tundra in the north. Ontario has many of the world's largest dike swarms. Revised Statutes of Ontario: text of "Mining Act". The geology of Ontario consists of the study of the rock formations in the most populated province of Canada. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). [14]. The largest dike swarm known on Earth is the Mackenzie dike swarm in Ontario which is 500 km (310 mi) wide and 3,000 km (1,900 mi) long. [4], The 2,677 million year old Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario and Quebec is one of the largest Archean greenstone belts on Earth and one of the youngest parts of the Superior craton which sequentially forms part of the Canadian Shield. This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total. [14] All were dug by a continental ice sheet that drove through the area, deepening some river channels to form lakes, and damming others with debris. The Nipissing sills, also called the Nipissing diabase, is a large 2217– to 2210–million year old group of sills in the Superior craton of the Canadian Shield in Ontario, Canada, which intrude the Huronian Supergroup. Parker E. Calkin and Carlton E. Brett, "Ancestral Niagara River drainage: Stratigraphic and paleontologic setting", "Geology of the Canadian Shield in Ontario: An Update", "Geochemistry, Petrogenesis, and Metallogenisis of Komatiites in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada", "Middle Proterozoic and The Mid-continent Rift", "Ring of Fire News: Removing our support, government is not listening", "Geological Past of Niagara Falls and the Niagara Region", "Ontario's mineral development strategy 2015", "Ontario's Natural Resources – Minerals and Mining". During the Ordovician period, eastern Ontario was covered in shallow seas. The Labrador Trough or the New Quebec Orogen is a 1,600 km (994 mi) long and 160 km (99 mi) wide geologic belt in Canada, extending south-southeast from Ungava Bay through Quebec and Labrador. In the western part, it is mainly marble, quartzite, and pelite platform levels and Mesoproterozoic amphibolite-grade rocks. The northwestern parts of the Shield, located roughly north and west of Sudbury, are known as the Superior province is the largest of the three sections, covering about 70% of the Shield portion in Ontario. The mining industry in Ontario produces more than 30 different metal and non-metal mineral products, and is responsible for a major percentage of Canada's nickel, gold, copper and platinum-group metals production. [9], The Parautochthon is a band running parallel to the Grenville Front, which varies in width from Labrador to northeastern Georgian Bay on Lake Huron. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. [1] The Hudson Bay lowlands, located north of the Canadian Shield, are mainly made of sedimentary rocks from the Silurian Period, although some parts date from the Ordovician and Devonian periods. The top rock formation was composed of erosion-resistant limestone and dolomite of the Lockport Formation. The Wisconsin glaciation extended from approximately 75,000 to 11,000 years ago. The Grenville Province makes up about 20 percent of the exposed Canadian Shield in Ontario and located south of Sudbury is 1.0 to 1.6 billion years old and is dominated by sedimentary rocks and later metamorphized. [9], The Sudbury Basin formed as a result of an impact into the Nuna supercontinent from a bolide approximately 10–15 km (6.2–9.3 mi) in diameter that occurred 1,849 million years ago[10], Sudbury Basin is the third-largest crater on Earth, after the 300 km (190 mi) Vredefort crater in South Africa, and the 150 km (93 mi) Chicxulub crater under Yucatán, Mexico. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Geology of Ontario. Most of the bedrock in the Hudson Bay lowlands is composed of limestone and carbonate-dominated sedimentary rock. Metamorphism continued into the Paleozoic after the Snowball Earth glaciation as the continent Baltica collided with an island arc and then the continent Laurentia. The South central part is dominated by the Grenville Province but flanked by two basins of Phanerozoic materials. This map published with the permission of V.G. The geology of Ontario consists of the study of the rock formations in the most populated province of Canada. About 61% of Ontario is covered by the Canadian Shield, mostly with Precambrian rock. [1] The Canadian Shield spans much of northern Ontario and is subdivided into three main geological provinces; The Superior, Southern and Grenville. Location of the Grenville and Superior Craton, Onaping Fallback Breccia, polished slab, 15 by 23 cm (6 by 9 in). Ontario has some of the oldest rocks on Earth. Ontario borders Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east, and the Great Lakes and the United States to the south. The oldest rocks in Sweden date to more than 2.5 billion years ago in the Precambrian. As of 2014, the mining industry produced about $11 billion worth of minerals. About 10,900 years ago, the Niagara Falls was between present-day Queenston, Ontario, and Lewiston, New York, but erosion of their crest has caused the waterfalls to retreat approximately 6.8 miles (10.9 km) southward. [21], Hard-rock mining has taken place in the province for over 130 years (as of 2012). [20], The current rate of erosion is approximately 30 centimeters (1 ft) per year, down from a historical average of 0.91 m (3 ft) per year. The lake's north shore in Ontario and Minnesota defines the northern arc of the rift. Included in the Mackenzie Large Igneous Province are the large Muskox layered intrusion, the Coppermine River flood basalt sequence and the massive northwesterly trending Mackenzie dike swarm.

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